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Henry VIII at Coronation

Henry VII had it all – wealth and connections that helped secure his unsteady throne – and the essential heir and a spare.

Unfortunately Arthur – Henry’s oldest prince – died in 1502. The king’s beloved queen Elizabeth of York died in 1503. She had been a kind and loving wife and mother. Henry, the younger son, had been groomed for a different path and an aging, widowed and grieving father didn’t have many years to prepare him for the throne.

Henry VII died of tuberculosis at Richmond Palace on 22 April, 1509. In Cassell’s Illustrated History of England (with text by William Howitt) the author describes how the English felt about his reign. “While his father had strengthened the throne, he had made himself extremely unpopular. The longer he lived the more the selfish meanness and the avarice of his character had become conspicuous and excited the disgust of his subjects.”

Edward Lord Herbert of Cherbury (1583 to 1648) was much like Sir Thomas Wyatt in that he was a poet, diplomat and soldier. His book England Under VIII was published the year after his death and is still read today.  According to Lord Herbert …

“Nothing is so easie as to reign, if the body of government be well framed.”  

Henry VIII was crowned April 22, 1509 at 18 years of age. He took the throne unopposed, a tribute to his father’s zeal. The Tudor reign was secure.

His father’s stinginess left him very well off but he would need guidance. His grandmother Lady Margaret Beaufort knew what her son Henry VII would have wanted.

Howitt wrote “His grandmother, the countess of Richmond and Derby, was highly esteemed for her virtue and prudence, and Henry appeared quite disposed to be guided by her sage experience in the conduct of national affairs. By her advice he continued in his council the men who had been the counsellors of his father. Warham, the archbishop of Canterbury, the earl of Shrewsbury, lord Herbert, Sir Thomas Lovel, Sir Edward Poynings, Sir Henry Marney, Sir Thomas Darcy, and Sir Henry Wyatt, surrounded his council-board, and occupied the chief offices of the state.”

Lord Cherbury listed the ten men in this order:

William Warham, Archbishop of Canterbury, and Lord Chancellor of England
Richard Fox, Bishop of Winchester, Secretary and Lord Privy-Seal
George Talbot, Earl of Shrewsbury, Lord Steward of the King’s Household
Sir Charles Somerset, Lord Herbert, of Gower, Chepstow, and Rayland, Lord Chamberlain
Sir Thomas Lovel, Master of the Wards and Constable of the Tower
Sir Henry Wyat
Thomas Ruthal, Doctor of Law
Sir Edward Poynings, Knight of the Garter, Controller
Sir Henry Marney, Lord Marney
Sir Thomas Darcy, Lord Darcy

“The frame of this council was of scholars, chiefly, and soldiers…” These were not “men of the law” – but they called for experts when needed. Their job was to “impartially advise, but often modestly contest with him in any thing for his good… this held up the majesty of the council.” Lord Herbert tells us that “The first office perform’d by these counselors, was mix’d betwixt piety to their deceas’d prince, and duty to their new.”

Lady Margaret expected them to “deliberate well among themselves” so that the young king would not be “distracted by difference of opinions.” They behaved as Margaret expected til her death; which came shortly thereafter.

Henry VIII had lost his brother, his mother and now his father. He was a sensitive young man. He left Richmond, where his father had died, for the Tower of London. There he learned the true state of the kingdom from his council and sought to “avoid those salutes and acclamations of the people … till the lamentations and solemnity of his father’s funeral were past. He thought not fit to mingle the noises.”

Henry Wyatt was knighted – along with others – at Henry’s coronation.

Recommended reading:

Winter King – Henry VII and The Dawn of Tudor England
by Thomas Penn.
http://tinyurl.com/c8xf5y6 

 

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Catherine_Aragon_Henri_VIII_Wikipedia

R.I.P. – 16 December 1485 – 7 January 1536

I will light a candle for this dear lady tonight. She was a descendant of John of Gaunt – as are we.

Most queens were glorified breeders; prince mills. This princess’ parents raised their girl with love and honor. They were the power couple of their time – Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand of Spain.

Katherine was Catholic, pious and fully prepared to do all that her new Tudor family asked. She had a terrifying journey from Spain to England – and then Prince Arthur died within months of the wedding. His father the king had promised her parents he would treat her as his own child – but he began to treat her as a bargaining chip.

She didn’t fit in on her own. She wore funny clothes and didn’t know how to dance and laugh. Her fate in that strange new land was in his hands and he wasn’t certain she was the best bride for his spare heir. Best bride, of course, meant whichever alliance would yield the most money and power.

Katherine was on the short list because she had already been shipped in by her parents, Henry wouldn’t have to pay her travel expenses. On the downside, if he found a better bride, he would have to return her dowry.

Yes, he was that cheap.

When her parents’ stars began to fade, he sent her to live “in rags” over the stables with not enough money for food nor funds to pay her servants.

When Henry died of tuberculosis, not many mourned. In Cassell’s Illustrated History of England, William Howitt states: “While his father [Henry VII] had strengthened the throne, he had made himself extremely unpopular. The longer he lived the more the selfish meanness and the avarice of his character had become conspicuous and excited the disgust of his subjects.”

After the king’s death, his mother – Lady Margaret Beaufort – chose counselors for her grandson, including our Henry Wyatt; and Katherine found her first (and last) years of true happiness. Henry VIII was a kind and loving husband for a time; but she was older than Henry. Through all the miscarriages she was only able to produce one living princess – not a prince. Henry could barely conceal his disappointment.

Menopause came early in those days. When it was obvious Katherine could not produce a son, the king set his sights on Anne Boleyn. Note that while Queen Katherine was losing Henry VIII to Anne Boleyn, Sir Thomas was losing Anne Boleyn to his friend Henry VIII. At least our Sir Tom had the good sense to step aside.

He wrote …

Whoso List to Hunt

Whoso list to hunt, I know where is an hind,
But as for me, hélas, I may no more.
The vain travail hath wearied me so sore,
I am of them that farthest cometh behind.
Yet may I by no means my wearied mind
Draw from the deer, but as she fleeth afore
Fainting I follow. I leave off therefore,
Sithens in a net I seek to hold the wind.
Who list her hunt, I put him out of doubt,
As well as I may spend his time in vain.
And graven with diamonds in letters plain
There is written, her fair neck round about:
Noli me tangere, for Caesar’s I am
,
And wild for to hold, though I seem tame.

Katherine’s days as wife and queen were numbered. Towards the end of 1527 she commanded Wyatt to translate Petrarch’s “remedy of yll ‘fortune’ – or Book II of De remediis utriusque fortunae. It was a massive undertaking that contained 132 dialogues. He completed some of it before deciding to substitute Plutarch’s short essay The Quiet of Mind instead. This would be his holiday gift to the queen.

His signature states that with her encouragement this work might lead “this hande / towarde better enterprises.” He dated it “the last day of Decembre. M.D. XXVII” and presented it to her as a New Year’s gift.

According to Patricia Thomson, author of Sir Thomas Wyatt and His Background, “This was indeed a poignant moment in Catherine’s life, to which both the work she commissioned of Wyatt and the one she got are appropriate.”

Thompson also suggests that “it is quite possible that, coming at this moment, Wyatt’s learned offering marks his swift revulsion of feeling against Anne’s values and in favour of those for which Catherine stood.”

Sir Thomas fell in love with Katherine’s servant, Mistress Elizabeth Darrell. They would be together until his end.

Henry VIII wanted a divorce so he could marry Anne. He hoped Katherine would be compliant – he needed her to be accepting because he feared angering her nephew, Emperor Charles VI. When Katherine stood her ground, Henry viciously destroyed her from within. He prevented her from seeing her only child and sent her to ever distant, colder, damper castles. Katherine wrote her nephew the Emperor:

‘My tribulations are so great, my life so disturbed by the plans daily invented to further the king’s wicked intention, the surprises which the king gives me, with certain persons of his council, are so mortal, and my treatment is what God knows, that it is enough to shorten ten lives, much more mine.’

In May of 1534 Katherine was sent to Kimbolton Castle, where she became a prisoner in the southwest corner. She spent most of her time in prayer and was attended by a few loyal servants – including Lady Darrell; Katherine left her £200 for her marriage, “though none was in prospect.”

(Henry VIII was malicious in preventing Lady Darrell from receiving the funds; she finally received them from Queen Mary after his death.)

“When Catherine’s body was cut open for embalming, the undertakers discovered that her heart had turned black, with a hideous growth on the outside. De la Sa was certain she had been poisoned and the accusation was later used against Anne Boleyn. But no one had access to the queen except for her most faithful ladies. Modern medical historians are certain she died of cancer. Its’ interesting in the light of current ‘new age’ thinking about the relationship between illnesses people get and their emotional condition: Catherine of Aragon died of something very close to a broken heart.” From Karen Lindsey’s Divorced Beheaded Survived; a feminist reinterpretation of the wives of Henry VIII

Henry found Anne Boleyn was more willful than Katherine – and just as unlikely to produce a male heir. I’ve read that Anne thought her life was in danger so long as Katherine was alive; the opposite was probably true. He couldn’t discard her because the emperor would
expect him to take his aunt back.

When Katherine died, Anne was condemned (through treachery) and Henry had already found her replacement. She was waiting in the wings. He nearly slipped the ring on her finger as the French swordsman sliced Anne’s head off her little neck.

Henry arrogantly assumed he was in a favorable position to reopen the lines of communication with the emperor. So guess who he sent as ambassador. Can you imagine calling upon the Holy Roman Emperor on behalf of the monster who killed his aunt?

I can’t.

Please join us on Facebook – Sir Thomas Wyatt the Poet

(This was mostly from memory – and opinion – so please write if you note errors.)

 

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Henry Tudor – son of Henry VII – was born 28 June 1491. Our Sir Thomas Wyatt was born in 1503.

In 1509 Henry VII died and his son was crowned Henry VIII. Our Henry Wyatt was the new king’s guardian as well as an advisor; his son Thomas became Henry’s friend – even through the Anne Boleyn debacle. It’s hard to imagine how Thomas felt when his childhood friends Anne and George Boleyn were beheaded, along with others of his creative friends.

Henry was openly brutal. He had no one to answer to; he was the head of the Church of England. He had his own damned church, Rome could kiss his ass.

Our Sir Thomas had the unpleasant task of representing the wishes of Henry VIII with Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor – nephew of poor dead Catherine of Aragon. I believe Henry killed her too – not with a Frenchman’s sword, but with emotional violence, by moving her to unhealthy places and denying her access to her beloved daughter. With Catherine out of the way, Henry shamelessly pursued an alliance with Spain.

Henry was manipulative, Charles was evasive and Thomas was caught in the middle. After time spent, he begged to be allowed to come home to Allington; but Henry wasn’t a man who cared about anyone but himself. Thomas finally retired to Allington, but was called back on a mission for the king. That’s how he died, leaving poems unwritten and his sister’s son (by Henry VIII??) “unraised.” (He was raising Lady Margaret Lee’s son at the time of his death.)

What happened to Henry? What turned him into a monster? I can’t get enough of the possible answers. Here’s another interesting article on the subject:

“As a young man, he was fit and healthy. But by the time of his death, the King weighed close to 400 pounds. He had leg ulcers, muscle weakness, and, according to some accounts, a significant personality shift in middle age towards more paranoia, anxiety, depression and mental deterioration. Among other theories, experts have proposed that Henry suffered from Type II diabetes, syphilis, an endocrine problem called Cushing’s syndrome, or myxedema, which is a byproduct of hypothyroidism.”

http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/42041766/ns/technology_and_science-science/t/king-henry-viiis-health-problems-explained/#.T_w7T0DCqhV.facebook

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Henry VIII

 

Some Sunday; I spent part of the day defending Henry VIII’s “honor”. I got into it with an English friend who insisted Henry died – and stank of – syphilis.  Pfffft.

Note to self: living in England does not make someone an expert.I haven’t read the syphilis theory in any of my books – so if I’m going to waste time rooting for the best of the latest information, I might as well share.

Mini refresher –

The fate of our Sir Henry Wyatt was tied to Henry VII.  They went to school together and became friends.  As adults, our Henry was loyal to Henry Tudor; he even endured two years of torture at the hands of kid-killer (?) Richard III.

Our Henry was greatly rewarded. (Please see what I wrote about Sir Henry in a previous blog. He is my favorite ancestor.)

The fate of Henry’s son Sir Thomas Wyatt the Poet was tied to Henry VIII

Henry VIII was born in 1491; our Sir Henry was made his guardian. 

In 1503 Sir Henry had his own son, Tom. There was too much of an age difference for them to have played together, but the king fancied himself a poet, musician and all-around renaissance man; he enjoyed battles of wits and liked having creative people around. They were friends.

Tom socialized with the king, pissed him off, competed for the same woman (Anne Boleyn) and was sent abroad to serve as ambassador. How convenient; get the competition as far away as possible.

Henry also had him thrown in the tower twice; and then he released him twice. I wonder if that was a record for Tudor times. 

So let’s take a moment to meet Henry VIII.  I’m guessing Henry and Tom could have passed for brothers. Both were over six feet tall, handsome and physically strong.

Check it out …

The psychology of Henry VIII.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t3psDbRDACw&NR=1

I have to disagree with Philipa Gregory. She talks about Henry’s privileged childhood and says he started being careful with his money as he got older. 

First of all – based on the research I’ve done, Henry’s childhood was restrictive. His father and grandmother kept him on a very short leash with very little freedom or money.  When daddy died – look out.

Secondly – hello big spender. Henry spent much of his life – and his father’s money – keeping up with the lavish King Francis (of France). Well, of course that kind of spending is going to catch up with you. I didn’t matter that he ransacked the Catholic churches of England – he still had to start cutting back.   

When our ancestor Sir Tom (the Poet) traveled as Henry’s ambassador, he was frequently short of funds and Lord Cromwell had to pay bills in his absence. I need to find out whether that’s because Henry was short on cash or – as Lord Cromwell is known to have warned him  – because Tom was overly generous and lended money to friends. 

OK, back to Henry. If he lived today, what would he have in his fridge?  If yours has beer, lunchmeat and desserts, you have a thing or two in common. Remember – the water wasn’t fit to drink, he could only drink ale and wine. Food was fatty meats and sweets – hold the veggies:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MbgcDxAQSgQ&feature=related

Henry had significant jousting and tennis injuries. (Note – Sir Tom jousted too!)
This segment even shows Henry’s armour.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fFyEfXHCZgc&feature=related

Shortly before Henry’s last days, our ancestor Elizabeth Brooke was on the king’s radar for a potential seventh wife. Katherine Parr was getting too smart and too protestant for her own good. She was starting to annoy Henry and she had Catholic enemies at court.

By then he was truly fat and gross and smelled like pus – so Elizabeth dodged a bullet; ok, an axe.  She couldn’t have passed inspection anyway; she left our Sir Tom for another man and they say she lived openly in adultery. She wouldn’t have passed Henry’s new laws that required future queens to be morally upstanding.

Perky young Katherine Howard taught him that lesson the hard way. Her alleged whoring before and during her time as Henry’s fifth queen had made a total fool of the old king; so he had her beheaded – of course.

Rather than his usual fleeting twinge of remorse, he was sad for months.  

Fortunately, Katherine wised up in time to save herself and her ladies. She was a genuinely loving woman who cared about him and comforted him in his old age. By then Henry’s health problems included constipation, gout, insulin issues and problems from his old jousting injuries. 

This segment talks about how they think he died.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=me8yqOqAkuw&feature=related
 
After his death, Henry’s body was put in a lead coffin; during  transport, the edges loosened and it burst. That night his bodily fluids dripped onto the floor of Syon Abbey. When plumbers came to make repairs in the morning, a dog came in with them … and licked it up. 

In 1532 – when Henry was trying to divorce Katherine of Aragon so he could marry Anne Boleyn – there was a prophecy. Friar Peto warned that if he succeeded, the dogs would lick his blood. 15 years later they did.

Henry wanted a monument; well, it’s hard to command your minions when you’re dead. This is where the memorable monarch rests.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WAenNzP9Y-k&feature=related

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Henry VIII's true wife.

Forgive my rants and ramblings. “The Tudors Wiki” has an ongoing debate about which of Henry’s wives had it worse.  I say it was Katherine of Aragon.  

(The Tudors is a “visually lush but historically loose” series on the life and wives of Henry VIII. Our ancestor Sir Thomas Wyatt is an integral part of it. You can see seasons 1 and 2 on demand via Netflix; seasons 3 and 4 are available on DVD.)

I suspect 80% of “The Tudors”‘ research came from one of my favorite references – Alison Weir’s “Six Wives of Henry VIII.”

The casting is brilliant, but they were a little stuck in stereotypes. They have the Spanish queen played by Maria Doyle Kennedy who has pitch black hair and fair skin;  check it out: http://tudorswiki.sho.com/page/Queen+Katherine+of+Aragon

This actress is awesome in the role but the real queen had fair skin and reddish hair. 

In my research I find myself growing very attached to some of these people. Katherine – like Sir Henry Wyatt – is  a favorite. But it didn’t “feel” right because I’m supposed to be writing about our ancestors and their connections, ya know? So you can imagine my delight in finding she does have a connection to us. 

Henry VIII elbowed our Thomas out of the way so he’d have a clear shot at Anne; then Tom fell in love with Elizabeth Darrel, Katherine’s Maid of Honor. (I’m going off memory so don’t hold me to details in this blog.)

Katherine of Aragon

It’s funny, the English had not yet encountered a strong, capable Queen Regnant but that’s exactly what Katherine’s mother was. Isabella I of Castile was at war and in the saddle the day before Katherine was born; she gave birth and rode off again the next morning, leaving the infant with a wet nurse.

Henry VII saw Isabella and Ferdinand as movers and shakers; he wanted to  strengthen his claim to the throne by marrying his oldest, Arthur, to their Katherine. They were betrothed as toddlers.

I can’t remember how old Katherine was when she finally made the journey to England. I think early teens.  She met with horrific storms en route and it took about three months to get there. I wonder if she saw that as an omen.

When she landed, she was entering prime child-bearing years. Arthur died of sweating sickness shortly after the wedding. Katherine was sick too – but she survived.

Imagine being a young girl, widowed, alone in a strange country. I read somewhere that her parents taught her to drink wine before she left home because the English couldn’t drink their water; it was unfit for human consumption.

Henry VII promised Isabel and Ferdinand that he would treat Katherine as his own daughter, but he used the young widow as a financial bargaining chip instead. He wanted dowry. He arranged for her betrothal to his son Henry, butyears later it was secretly withdrawn. He got stingy with her and she had to beg for clothes and money for the few loyal servants she had left.

Henry VII bears much blame for Katherine’s sad life because he wasted at least six of her prime child bearing years. Maybe if he had stepped aside, his son would have had his sons. Sure he would have strayed, but Katherine might have kept her crown and lived a more peaceful life. 

By the time Henry VII died and the young Henry VIII accepted his brother’s widow as wife, she was 23 years old – he was 18. Her first son was born on New Year’s Eve – a little boy who died in less than 60 days.

More miscarriages … imagine the rush of hormones, the depressions, the grief. Queens were glorified breeders. I read that she gave off an unpleasant odor after every pregnancy and Henry couldn’t stand the thought of getting close. Plus she was getting old quickly. Who wouldn’t? 

The royal couple’s daughter Mary didn’t count in the grand scheme of things because the English could not remember a time when they’d had an effective queen regnant.

Henry VIII’s father cared about money and establishing the Tudor dynasty. Henry VIII cared about putting on a big show and having a legitimate son or two to perpetuate the lineage. 

I think it’s probably true that he felt he had sinned by taking his brother’s wife; but the measures he took to rid himself of this pious woman were despicable.

There is a scene in The Tudors where Katherine takes a nighttime carriage ride to a cathedral to pray for a son. She steps out of the carriage barefoot onto cold wet stones … it’s a powerful visual.   

Katherine was the proud daughter of a powerful queen. Katherine herself was queen regnant for six months at the Battle of Flodden (Henry was busy in France at the time; nobody talks about that because he took credit for her win over the Scots.) 

She was a was a good woman who genuinely loved her God, her husband and her daughter. 

Towards Katherine’s end, Henry told Katherine and Mary they could see each other if they would acknowledge Anne as queen; they would not. Who could blame them?

All those miscarriages, one beloved daughter – then a husband whose affections grew cold to the point where he flaunted her successor.  When they opened her up after her death, they found “something black” on her heart. They say now that was a cancer. Well, abuse feeds cancers. I say any way you cut it, she died of a broken heart.

Yes, I believe Katherine had it worst.

I truly wonder why the Catholic church sainted Sir Thomas More (who burned Protestants at the stake) but not Katherine? Her faith, integrity and loyalty were unshakable.

If you watch the Tudors, you’ll see the scene where Katherine dies and her maid Elizabeth Darrel hangs herself; it didn’t happen that way. Elizabeth D. did not commit suicide.

Katherine wrote Elizabeth D. into her will, hoping she would find a good match. She already had a match – our ancestor, Sir Thomas Wyatt.   He even translated some Latin for Katherine. I wonder how well he knew her.

Anne Boleyn was the victim of her own ambition. I don’t care if we are related, I believe Anne’s karma played out in her lifetime; fortunately it did not extend to her daughter Elizabeth.

Elizabeth D. lived with Sir Tom at Allington until his death. (He died while traveling on behalf of the king.)  She had sons by him; one died with his half-brother Sir Thomas Wyatt the Younger at or after the rebellion.

Here’s something cool … last week I learned that Henry VIII gave Anne of Cleves three residences in appreciation for her willingness to step aside as wife. (She had to be giddy with relief!!) One of those residences was Hever, home of Anne and the Boleyns. Anne of Cleves also took an interest in little Elizabeth.

I wonder if the two spent time together at Hever. I can’t wait to learn more.  I have a soft spot for bastards who turn out ok:-)

(I am one.)

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The Other Tudors

The Other Tudors

I’ve seen “The Other Boleyn Girl” based on the book by Philippa Gregory. I don’t remember the details, so I rented it again.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oUZojhOdphg

Haven’t watched it yet – I’ve been too busy with a book I purchased at the same time, “The Other Tudors – Henry VIII’s Mistresses and Bastards” by Philippa Jones.  (See a link for purchase at the bottom of the page.)

It sounds steamy, but it’s not. Leave that to the romance novelists – I’m after facts. I don’t like seeing our ancestors portrayed inaccurately in books and movies. Philipa Jones’ book clarifies a lot of misconceptions while throwing more ladies (and bastards) into Henry’s mix. 

I quickly learned that Anne did not lure HenryVIII away from Mary as shown in the movie. In fact, the movie has Mary in seclusion in the late stages of her pregnancy as Anne and Henry begin their relationship.  I remember one scene where she’s holding her newborn baby – the king’s child – as he turns his back and walks away with Anne. It makes for good drama, but it couldn’t be further from the truth.

According to this book Mary’s affair had been over for three years before Anne caught his eye.  

“The affair between Henry and Mary Boleyn ended some time in 1525. It was not until 1528 that Mary’s sister, Anne, is mentioned as having taken the King’s fancy. He did not abandon one sister for another.” 

If Harry wanted a woman, he set up a suitable marriage and pretty much told the groom to stand back; which they were more than willing to do in return for generosity that included a beautiful wife.

The books talks about Mary falling out of favor with her own father. She had to maneuver behind the scenes to get Henry VIII to intercede on her behalf and guilt her father into giving her enough money to survive.  

And I don’t know if any movies have broached this aspect. “Despite the sisters being at odds, the closeness of the Boleyn family was noticed and utilised. When Anne miscarried in January 1536, Francis I was told the story, also reported by Chapuys to Charles V, that Anne was not really pregnant at all. She and her sister Mary had invented the story between them to keep Henry believing that Anne could give him the son he wanted.”

It’s also interesting to note that whereas Sir Thomas Boleyn is referred to in fiction as someone who used his daughters like pawns for personal gain, this book reminds us that his relationship with Henry VIII stood on it’s own merit. 

The book is well laid out, with reference trees preceding the chapters. Dates and details seems  a little convolulted, it’s hard work. It does seem that half of the people involved in intrigues at court are related to Sir Thomas Wyatt’s line or Elizabeth Brooke’s line in one way or the other; even Henry VIII.  In fact, Henry’s grandmother Margaret Beaufort … well, she got him laid. She personally chose the first woman he went to bed with before marriage. (The relation comes to us through Elizabeth Brooke.)

Understand that … “An affair with a royal prince was not disgraceful, and could lead to prosperity for a noble family. The lady might expect to receive favours, both financial and in property, an arranged marriage with a substantial dowry if she was single, and there could be positions at court for her family. If a royal mistress had a son, the child could expect an earldom and possibly a dukedom, with a chance that either he or his descendents woujld inherit the throne.”

Also, life expectancy was 35; these people lived faster and harder than we do today.

I do recommend the book:

The Other Tudors – Henry VIII’s Mistresses and Bastards”
by Philippa Jones.
 

<a href=”http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/1847734294?ie=UTF8&tag=wwwamericanwy-20&linkCode=as2&camp=1789&creative=9325&creativeASIN=1847734294″>The Other Tudors: Henry VIII’s Mistresses and Bastards</a><img src=”http://www.assoc-amazon.com/e/ir?t=wwwamericanwy-20&l=as2&o=1&a=1847734294” width=”1″ height=”1″ border=”0″ alt=”” style=”border:none !important; margin:0px !important;” />

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